Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.

Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns of threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

The method in which threads are interwoven affects the characteristics of the cloth.

The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling.

The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill.


In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft (older woof) that crosses it. One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms.


Basket weave

A variation of the plain weave usually basket or checkerboard pattern Contrasting colors are often used Inexpensive, less durable than plain weave. Basket weave is the amplification in height and width of plain weave. Two or more yarns have to be lifted or lowered over or under two or more picks for each plain weave point. When the groups of yarns are equal, the basket weave is termed regular, otherwise it is termed irregular.

~ wall hangings ~ pillows

Basket weave fabrics:

  • monk’s cloth
  • oxford




Double weave



Pile weave

Extra sets of warps or fillings are woven over ground yarns of plain or twill weave to form loops. Pile fabrics have been defined as fabrics(s) with cut or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface Pile fabrics may be created by weaving or through other construction techniques, such as tufting, knitting, or stitch through. To create the loops that appears on the surface of woven pile fabrics, the weaving process.

  • frieze
  • terry clot
  • corduroy
  • velvet
  • velveteen


~ upholstery ~ towels ~ carpet ~ area rugs ~ stage draperies

Plain weave

The plain weave is the most simple and most common type of construction.

~ simple ~ inexpensive ~ durable ~ flat surface. Conducive to printing. ~ tight surface


Plain weave fabrics:

  • chiffon
  • Georgette
  • shantung
  • seersucker


~ draperies ~ tablecloths ~ upholstery

Satin weave




Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave).

Twill creates a diagonal, chevron, hounds tooth, corkscrew, or other design. The design is enhanced with colored yarn is strong and may develop a shine. Twill weave is characterized by diagonal ridges formed by the yarns, which are exposed on the surface. These may vary in angle from a low slope to a very steep slope. Twill weaves are more closely woven, heavier and stronger than weaves of comparable fiber and yarn size. They can be produced in fancy designs.

This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a “step” or offset between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern.[1]

Because of this structure, twills generally drape well.


Twill fabrics have a back and front side, unlike plain weave whose two sides are the same.

The front side of the twill is the technical face; the back is called the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale; it is usually more durable, more attractive, most often used as the fashion side of the fabric, and the side visible during weaving.

Soil and stains are less noticeable on the uneven surface of twills than on smooth surfaces, such as plain weaves. Thus, twills are often used for sturdy work clothing or durable upholstery

The fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move more freely, and thus they are softer, more pliable, and drape better than plain~weave textiles. Twills also recover from wrinkles better than plain~weave fabrics do. When there are fewer interlacings, yarns can be packed closer together to produce high~count fabrics. In twills and higher counts, the fabric is more durable and air~ and water~resistant.

Twill fabrics:

  • denim

    A Strong Warp Face Cotton Cloth used for overall, Jeans skirts etc. Largely made in 3/1 twill weave. Generally warp yarn is dyed brown or blue and crossed with white weft.

  • gabardine

    A Warp Face cloth mostly woven 2/2 twill, 27/2 tex warp, 20/2 tex cotton weft. Here cotton weft is yarn dyed but the wool warp may be dyed in piece.

  • tweed

  • chino

There are even~sided twills and warp~faced twills. Even~sided twills include foulard or surah, herringbone, houndstooth, serge, sharkskin, and twill flannel. Warp~faced twills include cavalry twill, chino, covert, denim, drill, fancy twill, gabardine, and lining twill.

![herringbone twill](http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/K%C3%B6perbindung_Fischgrat.jpeg)

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