A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of natural or artificial fibers often referred as thread or yarn.
Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibers.
Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibers together.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in deniers. Microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier.
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required.
Corduroy is a textile composed of twisted fibers that, when woven, lie parallel (similar to twill) to one another to form the cloth’s distinct pattern, a “cord.” Modern corduroy is most commonly composed of tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel (bare to the base fabric) between the tufts. Corduroy is, in essence, a ridged form of velvet.
Chino cloth is a twill fabric, originally made of 100% cotton. The most common items made from it, trousers, are widely called chinos. Today it is also found in cotton~synthetic blends.
Developed in the mid~19th century for British and French military uniforms, it has since migrated into civilian wear. Trousers of such a fabric gained popularity in the U.S. when Spanish~American War veterans returned from the Philippines with their twill military trousers.
Denim is a sturdy cotton twill textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces the familiar diagonal ribbing of the denim that distinguishes it from cotton duck.
It is a characteristic of any indigo denim that only the warp threads are dyed, whereas the weft threads remain plain white. As a result of the warp~faced twill weaving, one side of the textile then shows the blue warp threads and the other side shows the white weft threads. This is why blue jeans are white on the inside. This type of dyeing also creates denim’s fading characteristics, which are unique compared to every other textile.
Cotton duck (from Dutch: doek, “linen canvas”), also simply duck, sometimes duck cloth or duck canvas, commonly called “canvas” outside the textile industry, is a heavy, plain woven cotton fabric. There is also linen duck, which is less often used.
Flannel is a soft woven fabric, of various fineness. Flannel was originally made from carded wool or worsted yarn, but is now often made from either wool, cotton, or synthetic fibre. Flannel may be brushed to create extra softness or remain unbrushed. The brushing process is a mechanical process where a fine metal brush rubs the fabric to create fine fibers from the loosely spun yarns. Typically, flannel has either a single~ or double~sided nap. Double~napped flannel refers to a fabric that has been brushed on both sides. If the flannel is not napped, it gains its softness through the loosely spun yarn in its woven form. Flannel is commonly used to make tartan clothing, blankets, bed sheets, and sleepwear.
Gabardine is a tough, tight woven fabric.
The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted wool, but may also be cotton, texturized polyester, or a blend. Gabardine is woven as a warp~faced steep or regular twill, with a prominent diagonal rib on the face and smooth surface on the back. Garbardine always has many more warp than weft yarns.
Clothing made from gabardine is generally labeled as being suitable for dry cleaning only, as is typical for wool textiles.
Gabardine was invented in 1879 by Thomas Burberry, founder of the Burberry fashion house in Basingstoke, and patented in 1888. The original fabric was water~proofed before weaving and was worsted or worsted/cotton, tightly woven and water~repellant but more comfortable than rubberized fabrics. The fabric takes its name from the word “gaberdine”, originally a long, loose cloak or gown worn in the Middle Ages, but later signifying a rain cloak or protective smock~frock.
Gabardine is used to make:
~ suits ~ overcoats ~ trousers ~ uniforms ~ windbreakers
Gingham is a medium~weight balanced plain~woven fabric made from dyed cotton or cotton~blend yarn. It is made of carded or combed, medium or fine yarns, where the colouring is on the warp yarns and always along the grain (weft). Gingham has no right or wrong side with respect to colour.
Oxford is a type of woven dress shirt fabric, employed to make a particular casual~to~formal cloth in Oxford shirts.
Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is usually a warp~faced weaving technique in which warp yarns are “floated” over weft yarns, although there are also weft~faced satins. If a fabric is formed with a satin weave using filament fibres such as silk, nylon, or polyester, the corresponding fabric is termed a satin, although some definitions insist that the fabric be made from silk. If the yarns used are short~staple yarns such as cotton, the fabric formed is considered a sateen.
Tweed is a rough, unfinished woollen fabric, of a soft, open, flexible texture, resembling cheviot or homespun, but more closely woven. It is made in either plain or twill weave and may have a check or herringbone pattern. Subdued, interesting colour effects (heather mixtures) are obtained by twisting together differently coloured woollen strands into a two~ or three~ply yarn.
Tweeds are desirable for informal outerwear, being moisture~resistant and durable. Tweeds are commonly worn for outdoor activities such as shooting and hunting, in both Ireland and the United Kingdom. “Lovat” is the name given to the green used in traditional Scottish tweed. In Ireland, tweed manufacturing is most associated with County Donegal in the Province of Ulster.
Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive feel.
Traditionally, velvet is associated with nobility.
Fleece is a general term for a soft fabric
Examples of pile textiles are carpets, corduroy, velvet, plush, and Turkish towels.